Ionospheric processes during the 7–10 November 2004 extreme geospace storm. 2. Simulation results and discussion

1Grigorenko, Ye.I, 1Pazura, SA, 2Chernogor, LF
1Institute of Ionosphere of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
2V.N. Karazin National University of Kharkiv, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Kosm. nauka tehnol. 2007, 13 ;(4):077-090
Publication Language: Russian
The simulation results of the effects of the thermosphere and the Earth's upper atmosphere heat regime disturbances during the extreme magnetic storm on 7–10 November 2004 are presented. The measurement results of the ionosphere parameters with the incoherent scatter technique and thermospheric model NRLMSISE-00 are used. The effects of the magnetospheric electric field penetration to the midlatitudes are estimated. The ionosphere-thermosphere disturbance effects are explained by the processes of high latitude heating due to the solar wind energy input, as well as particle precipitation, shift of the high latitude structures (auroral oval, midlatitude trough, hot zone etc.) to the latitudes that are closed to the Kharkiv radar latitude.
Keywords: high latitude heating, ionosphere-thermosphere disturbance, solar wind
1. Annakuliev S. K., Deminov M. G., Shubin V. N. Storm semiempirical model in the ionosphere of middle latitudes. Solnechno-zemnaja fizika, Is. 8, 145—146 (2005) [in Russian]
2. Afraimovich E. L., Kosogorov E. A., Leonovich L. A., Pirog O. M. Global Pattern of Large-Scale Ionospheric Disturbances During the Magnetic Storm of September 25, 1998, as Inferred from GPS Network Data. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 42 (4), 491—498 (2002) [in Russian].
3. Brjunelli B. E., Namgaladze A. A. Ionospheric physics, 528 p. (Nauka, Moscow, 1988) [in Russian].
4. Banks P. M. The thermal structure of the ionosphere. Proceedings of the IEEE, 57 (3), 6—30 (1969) [in Russian].
5. Ginzburg V. L. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasma, 683 p. (Nauka, Moscow, 1967) [in Russian].
6. Grigorenko Ye. I., Emelyanov L. Ya., Pazura S. A., Chernogor L. F. Ionospheric processes during the 7-10 November 2004 extreme geospace storm. 1. Observation results. Kosm. nauka tehnol., 13 (4), 62—76 (2007) [in Russian].
7. Grigorenko E. I., Taran V. I., Lazorenko S. V., Chernogor L. F. Wave disturbances in the ionosphere accompanied the solar flare and the strongest magnetic storm of September 25, 1998. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 43 (6), 770—787 (2003) [in Russian].
8. Grigorenko Ye. I., Lysenko V. N., Taran V. I., Chernogor L. F. Results of radiophysical studies of the processes in the ionosphere accompanying the very strong magnetic storm on 25 September 1998. Uspehi sovremennoj radiojelektroniki, No. 9, 57—94 (2003) [in Russian].
9. Grigorenko E. I., Lysenko V. N., Taran V. I., Chernogor L. F. Specific features of the ionospheric storm of March 20-23, 2003. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 45 (6), 789—802 (2005) [in Russian].
10. Grigorenko E. I., Pazura S. A., Taran V. I., et al. Dynamic processes in the ionosphere during the severe magnetic storm of May 30-31, 2003. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 45 (6), 803—823 (2005) [in Russian].
11. Danilov A. D., Morozova L. D. Ionospheric storms in the F2 region - Morphology and physics (Review). Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 25 (5), 705—721 (1985) [in Russian].
12. Zherebtsov G. A., Pirog O. M., Polekh N. M., et al. Response of the ionosphere to the strong geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulation. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 45 (5), 642—651 (2005) [in Russian].
13. Karpov I. V., Bessarab F. S. Simulation of the response of the thermospheric parameters to geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 44 (3), 394—401 (2004) [in Russian].
14. Kurkin V. I., Pirog O. M., Polekh N. M., et al. Complex Studies of Ionospheric Effects of Geomagnetic Storms in Northeastern Russia. In: Proceedings of XX All-Russian Conference on Radio Propagation, Nizhnii Novgorod, July 2—4, 2002, 62—63 (Nizhnii Novgorod, 2002) [in Russian].
15. Lysenko V. N., Cherniak Yu. V. Some peculiarities of the procedure for determination of ionospheric plasma parameters during natural disturbances in the ionosphere. Kosm. nauka tehnol., 10 (5-6), 110—113 (2004) [in Russian].
16. Lysenko V. N., Chernyak Yu. V. Determining of the Ionosphere Parameters on Space Weather Variations. Radiofizika i jelektronika, 11 (3), 409—414 (2006) [in Russian].
17. Taran V. I. A study of the natural and artificially disturbed ionosphere by the incoherent scatter method. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 41 (5), 659—666 (2001) [in Russian].
18. Tashchllin A. V., Romanova E. B. Modeling of the Ionospheric Response to the Geomagnetic Storm of March 22, 1979. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiia, 41 (2), 224—226 (2001) [in Russian].
19. Uryadov V. P., Kurkin V. I., Vertogradov G. G., et al. Features of HF-Signal Propagation on Midlatitude Paths Under Conditions of Geomagnetic Disturbances. Izv. vuzov. Radiofizika, 47 (12), 1041 — 1056 (2004) [in Russian].
20. Chernogor L. F. Nonlinear Radio Physics: Textbook. (V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, 2004) [in Russian].
21. Evans J. W. The Temperature of Neutral and Charged Particles in the Magnetosphere. In: Solar-terrestrial physics, 292—352 (Mir, Moscow, 1969) [in Russian].
22. Bailey G. J., Moffett R. J., Murphy J. A. Calculated daily variations of 0+ and H+ at mid-latitudes. II. Sunspot maximum results. J. Atmos. and Terr. Phys., 41, 471—482 (1979).
23. Banks P. M. Charged particle temperatures and electron thermal conductivity in the upper atmosphere. Ann. Geophys., 22, 577—584 (1966).
24. Buonsanto M. J. Millstone Hill incoherent scatter F region observations during the disturbances of June 1991. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (A4), 5743—5755 (1995).
25. Buonsanto M. J. Ionospheric Storms — a Review. Space Sci. Revs., 88, 563—601 (1999).
26. Buonsanto M. J., Gonzalez S. A., Pi X., et al. Radar Chain Study of the May, 1995 Storm. J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phys., 61, 233—248 (1999).
27. Burns A. G., Killeen T. L., Deng W., et al. Geomagnetic storm effects in the low- to middle-latitude upper thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (A8), 14673—14691 (1995).
28. Burns A. G., Killeen T. L., Roble R. G. A theoretical study of thermospheric composition perturbations during an impulsive geomagnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res., 96 (A8), 14153—14167 (1991).
29. Chernogor L. F., Grigorenko Ye. I., Taran V. I., Tyrnov O. F. Dynamic processes in the near-Earth plasma during the September 25, 1998 magnetic storm from Kharkiv incoherent scatter radar data. XXVII General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science: Programme, Poster Presentations Maastricht Exhibition and Congress Centre (MECC), Maastricht the Netherlands, 17—24 August 2002, 2280 (Maastricht, 2002).
30. Dalgarno A., Degges T. C. Electron cooling in the upper atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 16, 125— 132 (1968).
31. Foster J. C., Rich F. J. Prompt midlatitude electric field effects during severe geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26.367—26.372 (1998).
32. Foster J. C., Cummer S., Inan U. S. Midlatitude particle and electric field effects at the onset of the November 1993 Geomagnetic Storm. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26.359—26.366 (1998).
33. Fuller-Rowell T. J., Codrescu M. V., Moffet R. J., Quegan S. Response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res., 99 (A3), 3.893—3.914 (1994).
34. Gonzales C. A., Kelley M. C., Behnke R. A., et al. On the Latitudinal Variations of the Ionospheric Electric Field During Magnetospheric Disturbances. J. Geophys. Res., 88 (A11), 9135—9144 (1983).
35. Mikhailov A. V., Foster J. C. Daytime Thermosphere Above Millstone Hill During Severe Geomagnetic Storms. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 17.275—17.282 (1997).
36. Mikhailov A. V., Forster M. Some F2-layer effects during the January 6—11, 1997 CEDAR Storm Period as Observed with the Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Facility. J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phys., 61, 249— 261 (1999).
37. Mishin E., Foster J. C., Potekhin A P., et al. Ionospheric perturbations caused by quasi-periodic magnetic disturbances during the September 25, 1998 storm. EOS Trans. AGU, 81 N 48, Fall Meeting, F 947 (San Francisco, USA, 2000).
38. Mishin E., Foster J. C., Rich F. J., Taran V. Prompt ionospheric response to short period solar wind variations during the magnetic cloud event Sep 25, 1998. EOS Trans. AGU, 82 N 20, Spring Meeting, S 291. (San Francisco, USA, May 15, 2001).
39. Pavlov A. V. The role of vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen in the ionosphere during the undisturbed and geomagnetic storm period of 6—12 April 1990. Ann. geophys., 16, 589—601 (1998).
40. Pavlov A. V., Buonsanto M. J. Using steady-state vibrational temperatures to model effects of N2 on calculations of electron densities. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 26941—26945 (1996).
41. Pavlov A. V., Buonsanto M. J., Schlesier A. C., Richards P. G. Comparison of models and data at Millstone Hill during the 5—11 June 1991 storm. J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phys., 61, 263—279 (1999).
42. Picone J. M., Hedin A. E., Drob D. P., Aikin A. C. NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: statistical comparisons and scientific issues. J. Geophys. Res., 107 (12), 1468—1483 (2002).
43. Prolss G. W. On explaining the local time variation of ionospheric storm effects. Ann. Geophys., 11, 1—9 (1993).
44. Prolss G. W. Ionospheric F-region storms. In: Volland H. (Ed.) Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, 195—248 (Roca Raton, Fla, CRC Press, 1995).
45. Reddy C. A., Nishida A. Magnetospheric Substorms and Nighttime Height Changes of the F2 Region at Middle and Low Latitudes. J. Geophys. Res., 97 (A3), 3039—3061 (1992).
46. Richards P. G., Torr D. G., Buonsanto M. J., Sipler D. P. Ionospheric effects of the March 1990 magnetic storm: Comparison of theory and measurement. J. Geophys. Res., 99 (A12), 23.359—23.365 (1994).
47. Salah J. E., Evans J. V. Measurements of thermospheric temperature by incoherent scatter radar. Space Res., 13, 267—286 (1973).
48. Salah J. E., Evans J. V., Alcayde D., Bauer P. Comparison of exospheric temperatures at Millstone Hill and St-Santin. Ann. geophys., 32 (3), 257—266 (1976).
49. Schlesier A. C., Buonsanto M. J. The Millstone Hill Ionospheric Model and its Application to the May 26—27, 1990, Ionospheric Storm. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (A10), 22.453—22.468 (1999).

50. Shunk R. W., Nagy A. F. Electron temperature in the F region of the ionosphere: theory and observations. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 16 (3), 355— 399 (1978).