George de Bothezat and his contribution into the world aviation and astronautics
|1Zhurilo, DYu., 1Gutnyk, MV, 1Zhurilo, AG |
1National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute», Kharkiv, Ukraine
|Space Sci. & Technol. 2022, 28 ;(1):70-80|
|Publication Language: English|
The article dedicated the life and scientific way of George de Bothezat, the first Doctor of Sciences in the field of aviation. Together with Nikolay Zhukovsky, Igor Sikorsky, Stephen Timoshenko, Alexander Fan-der-Flit, and Alexey Lebedev, he was one of the organizers of the Air Fleet of the Russian Empire. He is the author of various inventions: gyroscopic sight and other types of aviation equipment. We analyze works by G. Bothezat on the impulse theory of propellers. In particular, the scientist derived formulas for ensuring the flight stability of airplanes and helicopters. He developed training ballistic tables, which allowed making corrections for the speed of the flight and the direction of the wind.
We briefly describe a biography of G. Bothezat, focusing on the student period of his life in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and the reasons for G. Bothezat’s departure to the United States in 1918. It is stated that it was there that his talent as a designer and creator of helicopters of the original system was disclosed in the best way. In 1922, George Bothezat obtained the financial support of the American government to build a workable helicopter model without prototypes and experiments, only based on the results of calculations. The reasons why G.Bothezat did not manage to achieve the launch of the serial production of helicopters are analyzed. We also mention the activities of the company founded by G.Bothezat, which was engaged in the production of fans of a new type for the US Navy. The Bothezat system fans were installed at the Rockefeller Center in New York as well as in American tanks. It is emphasized that I. Sikorsky also used the works by G.Bothezat in his research. It is stated that the flight trajectory calculated by G.Bothezat in air and airless space was used in the development of the American program of a manned landing on the Moon using the “Apollo” system.
|Keywords: history of aviation, Ihor Sikorskyi, Kharkiv Institute of Technology, Nikolai Zhukovskyi; helicopter, Personalities: George Bothezat|
1. Album of eleven photographs of the de Bothezat helicopter in flight. URL: https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/
de-bothezat-helicopter-album (Last accessed: 19.10.2020)
2. Boreschievici B. (2018). Un poinieral inventicii romanesti — George de Bothezat. Repere biografice. Intellectus, № 2,
112—120. URL: https://ibn.idsi.md/sites/default/files/imag_file/112-120_0.pdf (Last accessed: 23.10.2020).
3. Bothezat G. (1912). Introduction to the study of airplane stability: lectures, read to Officer. aeronaut. school, 230 [in Russian].
4. Bothezat G. A. (1915). The Great Law of Inertia. Bull. Alekseev. Don. Polytechnic Institute., 4, dep. 2, 1—26 [in Russian].
5. Botezat G. A. (1917). Investigation of the phenomenon of the blade propeller. Pg.: Main airfield of Air Force Directorate, 55
6. Botezat G. A. (1917). Theory of a flat-radial blade rotor: a new method for the experimental determination of the coefficients of
aerodynamic and hydrodynamic resistance. Pg.: Main airfield of Air Force Directorate, 6 [in Russian].
7. Botezat (Bothezat) Georgy Alexandrovich. URL: http://library.kpi.kharkov.ua/uk/graduate/BothezatGA (Last accessed:
19.10.2020) [in Russian].
8. Carroll V. (1990). Glines USAF. The flying octopus. URL: https://www.airforcemag.com/article/1090octopus/ (Last accessed
9. Charnov B. H. (2015). U.S. Navy retired. “The Flying Octopus”: The forgotten beginning of army helicopter. Aviation,
March 12. URL: https://www.ausa.org/articles/%E2%80%98-flying-octopus%E2%80%99-forgotte... (Last accessed 24.10.2020)
10. de Bothezat G. (1911). Étude de la stabilité de l’aéroplane: Academic theses. Paris: H. Dunof et E. Pinat, 192 p.
11. de Bothezat G. (1933). The Depression. Its Real Causes and the Remedy Paperback. New York: Publ. by the Author.
12. De Transhie N. (1957). The genius of dr. George de Bothezat. J. Amer. Helicopter Soc., 47, № 8.
13. Diaconu M. C. (2016). Gheorghe Botezatu — românul care a creat, acum 100 de ani, cel mai bun elicopter din lume și
a făcut primul calcul al traiectoriei pământ-lună. URL: http://www.cunoastelumea.ro/gheorghe-botezatu-romanul-carea-creat-acum-1... (Last
14. Guzman L. O. (2014). First in. last out. History of the U.S. army pathfinder (1942—2011). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 248.
15. Mikheev V. R. (2000). Georgy Alexandrovich Botezat (1882—1940). Moscow: Nauka, 156 [in Russian].
16. Munson K. (1968). Helicopters and Other Rotorcraft Since 1907. Blandford Press, 178.
17. Nazarenko S. A., Pavlova G. V. (2014). Pioneering work of Kharkov technologists in the field of aviation technology.
Universitates = Universities. Sci. and Educ., № 3, 42—55 [in Russian].
18. Radoguz S., Gutnyk M., Zaitsev R., Tverytnykova O. (2019). The development of researches in the electrical engineering field
in Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute. The personalities. IEEE 2nd Ukraine Conference on Electrical and Computer
Engineering (UKRCON) (June 2—6, Lviv, Ukraine), 1260—1264.
(Last accessed 24.10.2020).
19. Shavrov V. B. (1986). The history of aircraft designs in the USSR before 1938. Moscow: Mechanical engineering, 750 p. [in
20. Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich (1889—1972). URL: http://xn--80aafy5bs.xn--p1ai/aviamuseum/aviatory/aviakonstruktory/5-
rossijskaya-imperiya/sikorskij-igor-ivanovich/ (Last accessed: 24.10.2020) [in Russian].
21. State archive of Kharkiv region. F. 770. In. 2. C. 206. Bothezat G. A. 41 [in Russian].
22. State archive of Kharkiv region. F. 1682. In. 4. 4802. List of persons who graduated from the Kharkov Institute of Technology
in 1890—1930, 104 [in Russian]
23. State archive of Kharkiv region. F. 770, In. 1, 517а, 97. Protocols of teachers’ meetings [in Ukrainian].
24. State archive of Kharkiv region. F. 770, In. 1, 525, 12. On accepting back to the Institute former students who were dismissed
at different times for participating in the riots [in Russian].
25. State archive of Kharkiv region. F. 40. In. 121, 200. Kaplunovskaya (Nativity of the Virgin) Church. 1905—1910, 386 [in
26. Timoshenko S. (1963). Memories. Paris, 416 [in Russian].
27. Vinogradov I. (1924). Development of helicopter technology. Airplane, 2(4), 10—14 [in Russian].
28. Zhukovsky N. E. (1950). Theoretical foundations of aeronautics. Coll. works. M.; L., Vol. 6, 516—517 [in Russian].
29. Zhurilo D. Yu. (2016). Formation and development of the Kharkov Technological Institute in the late XIX — early XX centuries:
monograph. Kharkov: Pidruchnik NTU “KhPI”, 264 [in Russian].