Enrichment of the inorganic analogue of martian dust with the novel carbon nanoparticles obtained during combustion of carbohydrates and assesment of its meurotoxicity

1Pozdnyakova, NG, 1Pastukhov, AO, 1Dudarenko, MV, 1Galkin, MO, 1Krisanova, NV, 1Borisova, TA
1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Space Sci.&Technol. 2018, 24 ;(2):60-71
Section: Space Life Sciences
Publication Language: Ukrainian
Nowadays, analysis of the mechanisms of brain malfunctioning under conditions of long-term manned space missions is a priority research area of international scientific groups and an urgent task of modern space biology. Ignoring the problems of the nervous system functioning can make impossible further long-term interplanetary space missions. One of the possible causes of brain impairment can be an exposure to planetary and interstellar dust, whose composition,  properties,  and the impact on human health, in particular, neurotoxicity, have not been sufficiently investigated. Carbon is widely distributed in the native Martian dust and interstellar space and is a part of meteorites. In this study, the inorganic analog of Martian dust (MD) (JSC, Mars-1A, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) was enriched in different amounts by carbon nanoparticles (CNP) synthesized by the combustion of carbohydrates. MD enriched with CNP (CNP-MD) depolarizes the plasma membrane of the rat brain nerve terminals as shown by fluorimetry using a rhodamine 6G fluorescent probe.
                 An increase in the content of the carbon component of the CNP-MD is accompanied by an increase in the depolarization of the membrane. CNP-MD significantly reduces the initial rate of accumulation and increases the extracellular level of the neurotransmitters L-[14C] glutamate and [3H]GABA (g-aminobutyric acid) in the nerve terminals. An increase of CNP content in CNP-MD is accompanied by a more significant decrease in the initial rate of neurotransmitter uptake and an increase in their extracellular level. Therefore, the neurotoxic effect of CNP-MD is associated exclusively with the CNP activity but not with the action of its inorganic component. A decrease in the CNP content in CNP-MD reduces its neurotoxicity.
Keywords: brain nerve terminals, L-[14С]glutamate, Martian dust analogue; carbon nanoparticles, membrane potential, synaptosomes, [3Н]GABA
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