Prospects for the use of the combined method for deorbiting of large-scale space debris from near-Earth space

1Dron, NM, 2Golubek, AV, 3Dreus, АYu., 1Dubovik, LG
1Oles Honchar National University of Dnipropetrovsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
2Yangel Yuzhnoye State Design Office, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
3Oles Honchar National University of Dnipro, Dnipro, Ukraine
Space Sci. & Technol. 2019, 25 ;(6):61-69
Publication Language: Russian
The article discusses the problem of orbital debris from the point of view of a great threat to near-Earth human space activities. An overview of the existing approaches and technologies of orbital debris removal from low-Earth orbits is given. Currently, the main ways to combat man-made space pollution are the active and passive methods of deorbiting debris from near-Earth orbits. Active methods allow providing the deorbiting processes during the guaranteed time, but ones are energy-consuming. Passive methods are more economical but time-consuming and may not comply with the requirements of the international convention of the space pollution mitigation. We consider a new combined method for the largescale orbital debris removal from low-Earth orbits. According to one, the space debris elements will be disposed of in dense layers of the atmosphere for further burning. This method involves the joint use of active means — a jet propulsion system and passive means — an aerodynamic sail. The concept of using the combined method is presented with the assessment of its efficiency. The effective zone of the method’s application is determined. This area includes the altitudes from 700 to 2500 km, depending on the ballistic coefficient.
      It is proposed to take as a criterion of efficiency the relative deviation of fuel components’ mass necessary to provide deorbiting. The efficiency and prospects of the new combine method are demonstrated. Outcomes of the work can form the basis for the feasibility study and the development of proposals for the application of the combined method for cleaning low-Earth orbits from the elements of large-scale space  debris.
Keywords: combined method, deorbiting, mitigation of near-Earth pollution, orbital debris
1. Golubek A. V., Dron N. M., Dubovik L. G., Poliakov N. V. (2018). Optimization of energy costs with combinedremoval of space debris objects from low near-earth orbits. Aviation technology and technology, 7 (151), 5—11 [in Russian].
2. Dron M. M, Dubovik L. G, Golubek O. V., Dreus A. Yu., et al. (2019). Systems of removal of space objects from low near-Earth orbits. Dnipro: LIRA [in Ukranian].
3. Dron N. М., Horolsky P. G., Dubovik L.G. (2014). Ways of reduction of technogenic pollution of the near-earth space. Scientific Bulletin of National Mining University, 3, 125—130 [in Russian].
4. Svorobin D. S., Fokov A. A., Khoroshylov S. V. (2018). Analysis of the feasibility of using an aerodynamic compensator for contactless removal of space debris. Aerospace engineering and technology, 6, 4—11.
5. Alpatov A., Khoroshylov S., Bombardelli C. (2018). Relative control of an ion beam shepherd satellite using the impulse compensation thruster. Acta Astronautica, 151, 543—554.
6. Bondarenko S., Dreus A., Lysenko K. (2018). The investigation of thermal and gas dynamic processes in the combustion chamber of the rocket engine using slurry fuel, Proc. of the Inst. of Mech. Eng., Part G: J. of Aerosp. Eng., 232(10), 1903—1910.
7. Byers M., Byers C. (2017). Toxic splash: Russian rocket stages dropped in Arctic waters raise health, environmental and legal concerns. Polar Record, 53(6), 580—591.
8. Chopra C., Chandra R. (2018). Small Satellite Deorbital System using Magnetic Field Controlled Plasma. SpaceOps Conferences. Marseille, France, 28 May — 1 June 2018.
9. Degtyarev A., Kushnar›ov O., Baranov E., Osinovyy G., Lysenko Y., Kaliapin M. (2018). Yuzhnoye State Design Office and Space Debris Removal. SpaceOps Conferences. Marseille, France, 28 May — 1 June 2018.
10. DeLuca L.T., Lavagna M., Maggi F., Tadini P., Pardini C., Anselmo L., Grassi M., Tancredi U., Francesconi A., Pavarin D., Branz F., Chiesa S., Viola N. (2014). Large Debris Removal Mission in LEO based on Hybrid Propulsion. The Journal of Aerospace Science, Technology and Systems, 93 (1/2), 51—58.
11. Dosogn e T., Beaumet G., Delmas F. (2018). SPOT 5 End-of-Life. SpaceOps Conferences. Marseille, France, 28 May — 1 June 2018.
12. Dron’ M., Golubek A., Dubovik L., Dreus A., Heti K. (2019). Analysis of ballistic aspects in the combined method for removing space objects from the nearearth orbits. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2/5 (98).
13. Guerra G., Muresan A. C., Nordqvist K. G., Brissaud A., Naciri N., Luo L. (2017). Active Space Debris Removal System. Incas Bulletin, 9(2), 97—116.
14. Kelly P. W., Bevilacqua R., Mazal L., Erwin R. S. (2018). TugSat: Removing Space Debris from Geostationary Orbits Using Solar Sails. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 55(2), 437—450.
15. Khoroshylov S. (2019). Out-of-plane relative control of an ion beam shepherd satellite using yaw attitude deviations. Acta Astronautica, 164, 254—261.
16. Labutkina T. V., Larin V. O., Belikov V. A. (2018). “Wornout net” model for analysis of conflicts in a multitude of orbital objects. Proc. 69th International Conference IAC- 18, A6.2. Bremen, Germany, 1—5 October.
17. Makihara K., Takahashi R. (2015). Survivability Evaluation of Electrodynamic Tethers Considering Dynamic Fracture in Space-Debris Impact. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 53(1), 209—216.
18. Mej a-Kaiser M. (2010). Removal of hazardous space debris. Space Safety Regulations and Standards, 371—382.
19. Scharring S., Wilken J., Eckel H. A. (2016). Laserbased removal of irregularly shaped space debris. Optical Engineering, 56(1), 011007.
20. Schaub H., Jasper L. E., Anderson P. V., McKnight D. S. (2015). Cost and risk assessment for spacecraft operation decisions caused by the space debris environment. Acta Astronautica, 113, 66—79.
21. Shan M., Guo J., Gil E. (2016). Review and comparison of active space debris capturing and removal methods, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 80, 18—32.
22. Trushlyakov V., Lempert D., Yuan-Jie Shu. (2017). Energetic Compositions Application for the Reduction of the Environmental Pollution Because of Space Vehicle Launches. Eurasian Chemico-Technological J., 19, 239—244.
23. W eedena B. C. (2016). The Evolution of U.S. National Policy for Addressing the Threat of Space Debris. Proc. 67 th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Guadalajara, Mexico, 26—30 September 2016. IAC-16-A6.8.3.
24. Yemets V., Dron M., Yemets T., Kostrisyn O. (2015). The infinite Staging Rocket — A progress to Realization. Proc. 66th International Conference IAC-15, D2.7.7. Jerusalem, Israel, 12—16 October, 2015, 1—7.
25. Yemets V., Harkness P., Dron M., Pashkov A., Worral K., Middleton M. (2018). Autophage Engines: Toward a Throttleable Solid Motor. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 55(4), 984—992.