Development of carbon-containing marsian dust analogue and assesment of its effects on the key charasteristics of the synaptic neurotransmission in rat brain nerve terminals

1Pastukhov, AO, 1Dudarenko, MV, 1Galkin, MO, 1Krisanova, NV, 1Nazarova, AG, 1Pozdnyakova, NG, 1Borisova, TO
1Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Space Science and Technology 2017, 23 ;(2):32-40
Section: Space Life Sciences
Publication Language: Ukrainian
Carbon is widely distributed in the Martian dust, meteorites, and interstellar space. In this study, we prepared carbon-containing Martian dust analogue, which consists of inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC, Mars-1A, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) and carbon (nanodiamonds). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue on the key characteristics of the synaptic neurotransmission. It was shown that the carbon-containing Martian dust analogue enriched with nanodiamonds significantly reduces the initial rate of accumulation and increases extracellular levels of neurotransmitters L-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA (g-aminobutyric acid) in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. These effects of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue were mainly associated with the activity of its carbon component, but not with inorganic components. So, carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission, disbalancing excitatory and inhibitory signals. Thus, for human health, the toxic effects of carbon structures in native Martian dust, soil, and meteorites may be greater than the effect of the inorganic components. 
Keywords: brain nerve terminals, GABA transport, GABA-ergic neurotransmission, glutamate transport, glutamatergic neurotransmission, Martian dust analogue
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