Scientific-technical aspects of the first in the world Ukrainian space complex "RAINBOW"

1Mitikov, Yu.O, 1Bilogurov, SO
1Oles Honchar National University of Dnipro, Dnipro, Ukraine
Publication Language: Ukrainian
October 27, 1961, the first World space launch vehicle (not completed and tested well ballistic missile) 11K63 (63S1) together with a satellite was launched. The main goal for the new space complex Rainbow (K11K63) was to define potential branches for effective usage of space technologies. The weight of the first Ukrainian satellite DS-1 (Dnipropetrovsk satellite) was 310 lbs. Practical usage of new space complex — launch of artificial satellites in low Earth orbit having weight up to 990 lbs. For comparison, the weight of the first American satellite was 30 lbs. together with the 4th stage of the rocket, without the possibility to detach the last stage. The satellite DS-1 passed all necessary tests for that time. It was completely ready for work in the conditions of outer space. But … the first Ukrainian satellite DS-2 was launched into space March 16, 1962, after the 3rd launch attempt.
         It was the first attempt to analyze the phenomenon of the creation first in the World space complex and serial launches of artificial Earth satellites, taking into account historical background (hereinafter referred to as the — worldwide famous „Cosmos”). The scientific, technical, and military-applied aspects of the development of the space complex were analyzed. The powerful industrial cooperation planned from the very beginning between Academies of Sciences, branch institutes, and scientists of Eastern Europe, Mongolia, Cuba (Intercosmos program) for complex development was described. The separate topic contains information about personnel training for the rocket and space industry as a key success factor in space. Inaccuracies about Ukrainian satellites were identified and fixed, which could be faced in some publications.
Keywords: Academies of Sciences, M. K. Yangel, personnel training, satellite, scientific cooperation, Ukrainian space complex, „Cosmos”
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